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Electric Work

Electrical work is the work done on a charged particle by an electric field. The equation for 'electrical' work is, naturally, equivalent to that of 'mechanical' work.

Qualitative overview

Under normal circumstances, positively charged particles that are free to move will always tend to shift towards the direction of lower voltages (net negative charge). In contrast to this behavior of positive charges, particles that are negatively charged tend to shift towards regions that possess higher voltage (net positive charge).
However, it requires positive external work to move a positive charge into a region possessing a higher value of voltage. This is because external work is needed to be done against the field of the electric force; The work done here is equal to the work done by the electric field if it were to carry said positive charge the same distance in the opposite direction. Similarly, it requires positive external work to transfer a negatively charged particle from a region of higher voltage to a region of lower voltage.
The electric force is a conservative force: work which is done by an electric field is independent of the path taken by the charge. There is no change in the voltage (electric potential) around any closed path; when returning to the starting point in a closed path, the net of the external work done is zero. The same phenomenon holds good for electric fields as well.
The fact explained above forms the basis of one of the most fundamental laws governing electrical and electronic circuits, the Kirchhoff's voltage law. According to this principle, the voltage gains and the drops that occur around any electrical circuit loop is always equal to zero.

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